altmarius

cultură şi spiritualitate


https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-origins-quarantine-300x169.png 300w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 570w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 200w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 768w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 800w" data-sizes="(max-width: 865px) 100vw, 865px" data-attachment-id="81931" data-permalink="https://www.medievalists.net/2020/03/medieval-origins-quarantine/medieval-origins-quarantine/" data-orig-file="https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-origins-quarantine.png" data-orig-size="865,487" data-comments-opened="0" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":"","orientation":"0"}" data-image-title="medieval origins quarantine" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-origins-quarantine-300x169.png" data-large-file="https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-origins-quarantine-570x321.png" loading="lazy" sizes="(max-width: 865px) 100vw, 865px" srcset="https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-origins-quarantine.png 865w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 300w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 570w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 200w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 768w, https://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/medieval-or... 800w" />

As the world deals with the coronavirus pandemic, some of the key measures authorities are using to deal with the crisis are isolation and quarantine. The origins of quarantine date back to the Middle Ages, an idea that emerged in the wake of the Black Death.

When the bubonic plague struck Europe between the years 1347 to 1351, medieval physicians did not understand how this sickness was spreading. With theories suggesting the cause ranging from ‘bad airs’ to deliberate poisoning, the measures undertaken to stop the plague usually revolved around keeping cities clean and scapegoating minorities.

After the devastating phase of the Black Death, the plague would return to parts of Europe, striking communities sometimes every five or ten years. Europeans were also learning more about how this epidemic could spread from place to place, and the danger that those who were infected posed to the rest of the population. This led some cities to enact stringent measures against those who were ill.  For example, when the plague struck Milan in 1374, the authorities ordered that all sick persons to leave the city “and take to the open country, living either in huts or in the woods until [they] died or recovered.”

However, the city of Dubrovnik (then known as Ragusa), a port of about 3000 people on the Adriatic coast, did something quite different when the plague began emerging again in the year 1377. In their book Expelling the Plague, historians Zlata Blazina Tomic and Vesna Blazina reveal that they were the first city in the world to develop and implement quarantine legislation.

City records reveal a meeting that took place on 27 July 1377. Here the 47 councillors of Durbovnik voted on a series of proposals to deal with the plague. Thirty-four agreed to a new law that would prevent “those who come from plague infested areas shall not enter Dubrovnik or its district unless they previously spend a month on the islet of Mrkan or in the town of Catvat, for the purposes of disinfection.”

With the law in place, another was added, agreed to by 44 councillors:

The residents of Dubrovnik are strictly forbidden to visit those who arrive from plague-infested areas and who will be confined on the islet Mrkan or Cavtat. Those who dare bring food or any other necessities to the interned, without permission of the officials designated for that function, will have to stay there in isolation for a month.

Tomic and Blazina explain that Dubrovnik was a city that depended on trade, especially to have food come in, so that isolating themselves off from the world was not an option. By placing suspected carriers of the plague in nearby areas – Catvat was a small town just south of Dubrovnik while Mrkan was a nearby uninhabited island, the authorities hoped they could limit the infection while only slowing down the vital trade.

Tomic and Blazina also note how important the idea of quarantine was, writing:

…in order to arrive at the preventive isolation, a major leap of knowledge was necessary in the prevention of plague: the notion of incubation and maybe also the concept of healthy carriers of disease had to be accepted.

To help enforce the new regulations, the city of Dubrovnik hired a well-known Italian physician and two surgeons. This would lead to another innovation carried out by the city in 1390: the establishment of a permanent Health Office. At first called Officials Against Those Arriving From Plague-Infected Areas, they would be responsible for carrying out the city’s regulations and even punishing offenders – they could even carry out sentences such as lashing, branding, and cutting off of one ear. In their book, Tomic and Blazina detail how this office grew in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and how Dubrovnik continued their efforts to prevent plague from causing further devastation.

The success Dubrovnik achieved in containing the plague would lead to other Italian cities, such as Venice and Milan, to emulate it with similar measures. The term quarantine means a period of forty days, but cities implemented various time-periods for how long a person might be isolated, ranging between eight and 80 days. Jane Stevens Crawshaw explains:

The basic idea was that the separation of the sick (and eventually those suspected of having contracted the plague) was essential in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Quarantine measures were imposed upon inhabitants when cities were infected, as well as upon incoming travellers and merchants; they would come to encompass not only individuals but also their clothing, their possessions and their homes. Quarantine could be carried out in the domestic setting, but often separate buildings were set aside or specially constructed to serve communities as plague hospitals and to facilitate the care of patients while they remained in isolation.

The practice of quarantine and plague hospitals would gradually spread into the rest of Europe over the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries – it was a concept that appealed to the civic mindedness and spirit of charity of medieval communities. These measures offered some measure of protection against the plague while assisting those infected. Quarantine has endured as a public health practice for centuries since then, and is even used in the present-day battles against pandemics.

Zlata Blazina Tomic and Vesna Blazina’s book Expelling the Plague: The Health Office and the Implementation of Quarantine in Dubrovnik, 1377-1533, was published by McGill-Queen’s University Press in 2015. Jane Stevens Crawshaw’s article, “The Renaissance Invention of Quarantine,” appears in The Fifteenth Century XII: Society in an Age of Plague, edited by Linda Clark and Carole Rawcliffe, and published in 2013.

See also: The Coronavirus is not the Black Death

Top Image: 15th century image of Dubrovnik, from Konrad von Grünenberg’s Description of the journey from Constance to Jerusalem

Vizualizări: 1

Adaugă un comentariu

Pentru a putea adăuga comentarii trebuie să fii membru al altmarius !

Alătură-te reţelei altmarius

STATISTICI

Free counters!
Din 15 iunie 2009

199 state 

(ultimul: Sint Maarten)

Numar de steaguri: 263

Record vizitatori:    8,782 (3.04.2011)

Record clickuri:

 16,676 (3.04.2011)

Tari lipsa: 43

1 stat are peste 600,000 clickuri (Romania)

1 stat are peste 90.000 clickuri (USA)

1 stat are peste 40,000 clickuri (Moldova)

1 stat are peste 20,000  clickuri (Italia)

2 state au peste 10.000 clickuri (Franta,  Germania)

6 state au peste 5.000 clickuri (Olanda, Belgia, Marea Britanie, Canada, UngariaSpania )

10 state au peste 1,000 clickuri (Polonia, Rusia,  Australia, IrlandaIsraelGreciaElvetia ,  Brazilia, Suedia, Austria)

50 state au peste 100 clickuri

24 state au un click

Rating for altmarius.ning.com 

altmarius.ning.com-Google pagerank,alexa rank,Competitor

DE URMĂRIT

1. ANTICARIAT ALBERT

http://anticariatalbert.com/

2. ANTICARIAT ODIN 

http://anticariat-odin.ro/

3. TARGUL CARTII

http://www.targulcartii.ro/

4. PRINTRE CARTI

http://www.printrecarti.ro/

5. MAGAZINUL DE CARTE

http://www.magazinul-de-carte.ro/

6 ANTICARIAT PLUS

http://www.anticariatplus.ro/

7. DEPOZITUL DE CARTI 

http://www.calinblaga.ro/

8. CARTEA DE CITIT

http://www.carteadecitit.ro/

9. ANTICARIAT ON-LINE
http://www.carti-online.com/

10. ANTICARIATUL DE NOAPTE

 http://www.anticariatuldenoapte.ro/

11. ANTICARIATUL NOU

http://www.anticariatulnou.ro

12. ANTICARIAT NOU

https://anticariatnou.wordpress.com/

13. ANTICARIAT ALEPH

https://www.anticariataleph.ro/

14. ANTIKVARIUM.RO

http://antikvarium.ro

15.ANTIKVARIUS.RO

https://www.antikvarius.ro/

16. ANTICARIAT LOGOS

http://www.anticariat-logos.ro/

17. ANTICARIAT.NET

http://www.anticariat.net/informatii-contact.php

18. TIMBREE

www.timbree.ro

19. FILATELIE

 http://www.romaniastamps.com/

20 MAX

http://romanianstampnews.blogspot.com

21. STAMPWORLD

http://www.stampworld.com

22. LIBMAG

https://www.libmag.ro/oferta-carti-polirom/?utm_source=facebook-ads-7-99-polirom&utm_medium=banner-facebook&utm_campaign=7-99-polirom-facebook&utm_content=new-3

23. DAFFI'S BOOKS

https://www.daffisbooks.ro/

24. MAGIA MUNTELUI

http://magiamuntelui.blogspot.com

25. RAZVAN CODRESCU
http://razvan-codrescu.blogspot.ro/

26.RADIO ARHIVE

https://www.facebook.com/RadioArhive/

27.EDITURA UNIVERSITATII CUZA - IASI

http://www.editura.uaic.ro/produse/colectii/documenta/1

28. EDITURA ISTROS

https://www.muzeulbrailei.ro/editura-istros/

29 ORIZONTURI CULTURALE

http://www.orizonturiculturale.ro/ro_home.html

30. SA NU UITAM

http://sanuuitam.blogspot.ro/

31. MIRON MANEGA
http://www.certitudinea.o

32. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ROMANIA

https://www.natgeo.ro/revista

33. KORUNK

http://ideakonyvter.ro/53-korunk

Insignă

Se încarcă...

Anunturi

Licenţa Creative Commons Această retea este pusă la dispoziţie sub Licenţa Atribuire-Necomercial-FărăModificări 3.0 România Creativ

Note

Erfolgsgeschichte Taunusbahn

Creat de altmariusclassic Sep 13, 2013 at 11:02am. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusclassic Sep 13, 2013.

Schnell und Steiner

Creat de altmariusplus Iun 19, 2013 at 1:59pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusplus Iun 19, 2013.

Grosse Kunstfuehrer zum Schnell &Steiner

Creat de altmariusclassic Dec 21, 2012 at 6:55pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusclassic Dec 21, 2012.

Hermann Hesse -bucher

Creat de altmariusscience Nov 7, 2012 at 5:47pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusscience Nov 7, 2012.

Grosse Kunstfuehrer zum Schnell & Steiner - 1

Creat de altmariusclassic Oct 8, 2012 at 7:52pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusclassic Oct 8, 2012.

Neuerscheinungen zum Schnell &Steiner - 3

Creat de altmariusclassic Oct 8, 2012 at 7:50pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusclassic Oct 8, 2012.

Neuerscheinungen zum Bohlau - 1

Creat de altmarius Aug 29, 2012 at 7:30am. Actualizat ultima dată de altmarius Aug 29, 2012.

Neuerscheinungen zum Schnell & Steiner - 2

Creat de altmarius Aug 29, 2012 at 7:26am. Actualizat ultima dată de altmarius Aug 29, 2012.

Neuerscheinungen zum Schnell & Steiner

Creat de altmariusplus Mar 14, 2012 at 3:01pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusplus Mar 14, 2012.

Grosse Kunstfuhrer: Maribor

Creat de altmariusconcurs Feb 22, 2012 at 1:08pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusconcurs Feb 22, 2012.

© 2020   Created by altmarius.   Oferit de

Embleme  |  Raportare eroare  |  Termeni de utilizare a serviciilor