altmarius

cultură şi spiritualitate

Recently I was chatting with a leading medieval historian about writing an article for our upcoming issue on the Seventh Crusade. The historian responded with interest, but also asked me to clarify, which was crusade was that? The answer is not obvious.

Map from 1870 showing the routes of the crusaders during first four crusades.

Historians have long been numbering the crusades, trying to categorize them into some kind of order. However, the way they have done so has been somewhat arbitrary, which has led to disagreement and confusion. In some books you can find the number of crusades going up to seven, while others list as many as ten. Some explanations are required.

One can begin by establishing that this only refers to the crusades that were against Muslims in the Middle East - or at least were supposed to go there. There were many other crusades officially launched by the Papacy, such as those against pagan peoples in the Baltic Sea region, or against the Cathars in southern France.

Historians are pretty much unanimous in what were the first five crusades:

The First Crusade (1096–1099) - aimed at overthrowing the Seljuk Turks’ rule of Jerusalem

The Second Crusade (1147–1149) - led by the kings of France and Germany, it was mostly notable for a failed attempt to capture Damascus.

The Third Crusade (1189–1192) - a response to the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin in 1187, this involved the kings of France and England, and the Holy Roman Emperor.

The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) - while the initial aim of this crusade was to retake Jerusalem, it instead became focused with conquering the Byzantine capital of Constantinople.

The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) - was an attempt to conquer Egypt.

Keep in mind these were not the only crusades that took place in the Middle East. Just after the First Crusade there was another expedition, known as the Crusade of 1101, which was followed by the Norwegian Crusade (1107-1111) and the Venetian Crusade (1122–24). We should not also forget about the Crusade of 1197, organized by Emperor Henry VI. None of these military expeditions got a number, although the reasons for this are not clear. One argument is that these were smaller crusades in terms of numbers, nor were they pan-European efforts, but rather launched by an individual state.

The Sixth Crusade is where things get confusing. In 1228 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, sailed towards Syria intending to recapture Jerusalem. This would be an odd crusade, for it was successful - the Holy City would again be placed into Christian control - but this was done through a diplomatic agreement as opposed to any actual warfare. Furthermore, the legitimacy of the crusade could be questioned, as when it began Frederick had been excommunicated by the Pope (for not going on crusade earlier). All this has led to some historians to decline from referring to it as a ‘numbered’ crusade.

This leads us to the Seventh Crusade, which some call the Sixth Crusade. This was another attempt at conquering Egypt, led by King Louis IX of France, which lasted from 1248 to 1254.

We also have the Eighth Crusade and the Ninth Crusade, which were actually part of the same expedition. This was another war launched by Louis IX in 1270, which was supposed to retake the Holy Land. However, the first stop in this campaign was the city of Tunis in North Africa, and it was here that Louis died. This episode is called the Eighth Crusade. Some of the remnants of his army did eventually reach the Middle East, joined by Edward, the son of England’s King Henry III (he would later be crowned as Edward I). This has been called the Ninth Crusade, lasting from 1271 to 1272, it is generally considered to be an ineffective campaign, most notable for an assassination attempt on Edward. It is surprising that historians have divided this up into separate crusades, and one can find a few books that refers to this as the Seventh Crusade.

Finally, there was a raid on the Egyptian city of Alexandria in 1365 that has been called the Tenth Crusade. Well, at least Wikipedia mentions it, but outside of that it is hard to find any other references to it.

The crusades offer historians much to debate about - even which crusade was which. Our upcoming issue on the Seventh Crusade - the one where Louis IX invades Egypt - is no exception, as it offers a complex story with many interesting characters. Look for that issue to be coming out at the end of 2018. You can also check out some of our previous issues that focused on the crusades:

Vizualizări: 63

Adaugă un comentariu

Pentru a putea adăuga comentarii trebuie să fii membru al altmarius !

Alătură-te reţelei altmarius

STATISTICI

Free counters!
Din 15 iunie 2009

200 state 

(ultimul: Micronesia)

Numar de steaguri: 262

Record vizitatori:    8,782 (3.04.2011)

Record clickuri:

 16,676 (3.04.2011)

Tari lipsa: 42

1 stat are peste 600,000 clickuri (Romania)

1 stat are peste 90.000 clickuri (USA)

1 stat are peste 40,000 clickuri (Moldova)

1 stat are peste 20,000  clickuri (Italia)

2 state au peste 10.000 clickuri (Franta,  Germania)

6 state au peste 5.000 clickuri (Olanda, Belgia, Marea Britanie, Canada, UngariaSpania )

10 state au peste 1,000 clickuri (Polonia, Rusia,  Australia, IrlandaIsraelGreciaElvetia ,  Brazilia, Suedia, Austria)

50 state au peste 100 clickuri

24 state au un click

altmarius.ning.com-Google pagerank,alexa rank,Competitor

DE URMĂRIT

1. ANTICARIAT ALBERT

http://anticariatalbert.com/

2. ANTICARIAT ODIN 

http://anticariat-odin.ro/

3. TARGUL CARTII

http://www.targulcartii.ro/

4. PRINTRE CARTI

http://www.printrecarti.ro/

5. MAGAZINUL DE CARTE

http://www.magazinul-de-carte.ro/

6 ANTICARIAT PLUS

http://www.anticariatplus.ro/

7. DEPOZITUL DE CARTI 

http://www.calinblaga.ro/

8. CARTEA DE CITIT

http://www.carteadecitit.ro/

9. ANTICARIAT ON-LINE
http://www.carti-online.com/

10. ANTICARIATUL DE NOAPTE

 http://www.anticariatuldenoapte.ro/

11. ANTICARIATUL NOU

http://www.anticariatulnou.ro

12. ANTICARIAT NOU

https://anticariatnou.wordpress.com/

13. ANTICARIAT ALEPH

https://www.anticariataleph.ro/

14. ANTIKVARIUM.RO

http://antikvarium.ro

15.ANTIKVARIUS.RO

https://www.antikvarius.ro/

16. ANTICARIAT LOGOS

http://www.anticariat-logos.ro/

17. ANTICARIAT.NET

http://www.anticariat.net/informatii-contact.php

18. TIMBREE

www.timbree.ro

19. FILATELIE

 http://www.romaniastamps.com/

20 MAX

http://romanianstampnews.blogspot.com

21. STAMPWORLD

http://www.stampworld.com

22. LIBMAG

https://www.libmag.ro/oferta-carti-polirom/?utm_source=facebook-ads-7-99-polirom&utm_medium=banner-facebook&utm_campaign=7-99-polirom-facebook&utm_content=new-3

23. DAFFI'S BOOKS

https://www.daffisbooks.ro/

24. MAGIA MUNTELUI

http://magiamuntelui.blogspot.com

25. RAZVAN CODRESCU
http://razvan-codrescu.blogspot.ro/

26.RADIO ARHIVE

https://www.facebook.com/RadioArhive/

27.EDITURA UNIVERSITATII CUZA - IASI

http://www.editura.uaic.ro/produse/colectii/documenta/1

28. EDITURA ISTROS

https://www.muzeulbrailei.ro/editura-istros/

29 ORIZONTURI CULTURALE

http://www.orizonturiculturale.ro/ro_home.html

30. SA NU UITAM

http://sanuuitam.blogspot.ro/

31. MIRON MANEGA
http://www.certitudinea.o

32. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ROMANIA

https://www.natgeo.ro/revista

33. KORUNK

http://ideakonyvter.ro/53-korunk

Insignă

Se încarcă...

Anunturi

Licenţa Creative Commons Această retea este pusă la dispoziţie sub Licenţa Atribuire-Necomercial-FărăModificări 3.0 România Creativ

Note

Erfolgsgeschichte Taunusbahn

Creat de altmariusclassic Sep 13, 2013 at 11:02am. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusclassic Sep 13, 2013.

Schnell und Steiner

Creat de altmariusplus Iun 19, 2013 at 1:59pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusplus Iun 19, 2013.

Grosse Kunstfuehrer zum Schnell &Steiner

Creat de altmariusclassic Dec 21, 2012 at 6:55pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusclassic Dec 21, 2012.

Hermann Hesse -bucher

Creat de altmariusscience Nov 7, 2012 at 5:47pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusscience Nov 7, 2012.

Grosse Kunstfuehrer zum Schnell & Steiner - 1

Creat de altmariusclassic Oct 8, 2012 at 7:52pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusclassic Oct 8, 2012.

Neuerscheinungen zum Schnell &Steiner - 3

Creat de altmariusclassic Oct 8, 2012 at 7:50pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusclassic Oct 8, 2012.

Neuerscheinungen zum Bohlau - 1

Creat de altmarius Aug 29, 2012 at 7:30am. Actualizat ultima dată de altmarius Aug 29, 2012.

Neuerscheinungen zum Schnell & Steiner - 2

Creat de altmarius Aug 29, 2012 at 7:26am. Actualizat ultima dată de altmarius Aug 29, 2012.

Neuerscheinungen zum Schnell & Steiner

Creat de altmariusplus Mar 14, 2012 at 3:01pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusplus Mar 14, 2012.

Grosse Kunstfuhrer: Maribor

Creat de altmariusconcurs Feb 22, 2012 at 1:08pm. Actualizat ultima dată de altmariusconcurs Feb 22, 2012.

© 2020   Created by altmarius.   Oferit de

Embleme  |  Raportare eroare  |  Termeni de utilizare a serviciilor