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Josquin des Prés
Josquin des Prez.jpg
Josquin des Prés
Date personale
Născut 1450 Modificați la Wikidata
Beaurevoir, Franța Modificați la Wikidata
Decedat 27 august 1521 (71 de ani)[1] Modificați la Wikidata
Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Franța Modificați la Wikidata
Cetățenie Bannière de France style 1500.svg Franța Modificați la Wikidata
Ocupație compozitor Modificați la Wikidata
Activitate
Gen muzical Misă
Motet
Chanson[*]  Modificați la Wikidata
Prezență online

Josquin des Prés (n. cca. 1440, Picardia — d. 1521, Hainaut) a fost cel mai important compozitor renascentist al Școlii Franco-Flamande.

Viața

Se cunosc puține date despre viața compozitorului. Nu se știe nimic cert despre educația sa timpurie și nu se cunoaște exact anul în care a venit în Italia. În jurul anului 1480 sau 1482 a intrat în serviciul cardinalului Ascanio Sforza în nordul Italiei. În 1489 era membru al corului papal din Roma. În 1504 s-a stabilit în Condé-sur-l'Escaut, astăzi în nordul Franței.

Muzica

Contemporanii săi l-au perceput drept cel mai mare compozitor al momentului, muzica sa fiind recunoscută pentru natura expresivă și modul de abordare care contrastează cu tradiția medievală a muzicii cât mai abstracte.[2]

Compozitorul a creat atât piese de o înaltă complexitate tehnică,[3] dar și piese de o simplitate și o eleganță uimitoare, cum sunt unele dintre motetele și chanson-urile sale.

El a folosit, de asemenea, scriitura omofonă, pentru a da textului o claritate suplimentară și a utilizat extensiv repetitia de elemente tematice pentru unitatea compoziției.

Creație[modificare | modificare sursă]

Pagina de manuscris cu sectiunea Kyrie din Missa de Beata Virgine (Liturghia Sfintei Fecioare Maria)
  • Muzica religioasă: 22 de mise, 129 de motete, imnuri, psalmi.
  • Muzică laică: 86 de chanson-uri.

Note

  1. ^ „Josquin des Prés”, Gemeinsame Normdatei, accesat în 13 august 2015
  2. ^ Unele dintre compozițiile lui des Pres, în special „misele” (liturghia de rit catolic), folosesc tehnica mai veche a cantus firmus-ului.
  3. ^ În muzica sa se remarcă felul în care compozitorul folosește imitația (intrarea vocilor cu același text la momente diferite) pentru a permite vocilor redarea inteligibilă a textului înainte ca interpretarea să devină prea densă.

Josquin Des Prez: Miserere mei Deus
Perhaps a native of the Vermandois region of Picardy, he was a singer at Milan Cathedral in 1459, remaining there until December 1472. By July 1474 he was one of the 'cantori di capella' in the chapel of Galeazzo Maria Sforza. Between 1476 and 1504 he passed into the service of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, whom he probably accompanied in Rome in 1484. His name first appears among the papal chapel choir in 1486 and recurs sporadically; he had left the choir by 1501. In this Italian period Josquin reached artistic maturity.

He then went to France (he may also have done so while at the papal chapel) and probably served Louis XII's court. Although he may have had connections with the Ferrara court (through the Sforzas) in the 1480s and 1490s, no formal relationship with the court is known before 1503 when, for a year, he was maestro di cappella there and the highest-paid singer in the chapel's history. There he probably wrote primarily masses and motets. An outbreak of plague in 1503 forced the court to leave Ferrara (Josquin's place was taken by Obrecht, who fell victim in 1505). He was in the north again, at Notre Dame at Condé, in 1504; he may have been connected with Margaret of Austria's court, 1508-11. He died in 1521. Several portraits survive, one attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

Josquin's works gradually became known throughout western Europe and were regarded as models by many composers and theorists. Petrucci's three books of his masses (1502-14) reflect contemporary esteem, as does Attaingnant's collection of his chansons (1550). Several laments were written on his death (including Gombert's elegy Musae Jovis), and as late as 1554 Jacquet of Mantua paid him tribute in a motet. He was praised by 16th-century literary figures (including Castiglione and Rabelais) and was Martin Luther's favourite composer.

Josquin was the greatest composer of the high Renaissance, the most varied in invention and the most profound in expression. Much of his music cannot be dated. Generally, however, his first period (up to circa 1485) is characterized by abstract, melismatic counterpoint in the manner of Ockeghem and by tenuous relationships between words and music. The middle period (to circa 1505) saw the development and perfection of the technique of pervasive imitation based on word-generated motifs. This style has been seen as a synthesis of two traditions: the northem polyphony of Dufay, Busnois and Ockeghem, in which he presumably had his earliest training, and the more chordal, harmonically orientated practice of Italy. In the final period the relationship between word and note becomes even closer and there is increasing emphasis on declamation and rhetorical expression within a style of the utmost economy.

His many motets span all three periods. One of the earliest, the four-part Victimae paschali laudes (1502), exemplifies his early style, with its dense texture, lack of imitation, patches of stagnant rhythm and rudimentary treatment of dissonance. Greater maturity is shown in Planxit autem David, in which homophonic and freely imitative passages alternate, and in Absalon, fili mi, with its flexible combination of textures. His later motets, such as In principio erat verbum, combine motivic intensity and melodic succinctness with formal clarity; they are either freely composed, four-part settings of biblical texts, or large-scale cantus firmus pieces. Transparent textures and duet writing are common.

Josquin's 18 complete masses combine elements of cantus firmus, parody and paraphrase techniques. One of the earliest, L'ami Baudichon, is a cantus firmus mass on a simple dance formula; the simplicity of melody and rhythm and the clarity of harmony and texture recall the Burgundian style of the 1450s and 1460s. Fortuna desperata, on the other hand, is an early example of parody. Canonic writing and ostinato hgures are features. His last great masses, notably the Missa de beata virgine and the Missa 'Pange lingua' were preceded by works in which every resource is deployed with bravura.

Josquin's secular music comprises three settings of Italian texts and numerous chansons. One of the earliest, Cela sans plus, typifies his observance of the formes fixes and the influences of the Burgundian style of Busnois and Ockeghem. Later works, such as Mille regretz, are less canonic, the clear articulation of line and points of imitation achieved by a carefull balanced hierarchy of cadences. Some, like Si j'ay perdu mon ami, look forward to the popular 'Parisian' chanson of Janequin.

The Hilliard Ensemble
Painting by Petrus Christus: The Lamentation

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