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Bucurestiul disparut: Institutul de Medico-Legal "Mina Minovici" din zona Cauzasi - Splaiul Unirii

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Bucharest Time

IML-ul (1898 - 1986) -din Splai - morga de sub talpa istoriei - faimosul asezamant ce ducea spre vesnicie, distrus de niste vremelnici comunisti.

Putina lume stie ca Institutul Medico Legal, fondat la 1898 de catre Mina Minovici - cel care a reformat medicina legala, a fost primul institut de profil din Europa, dupa pareri avizate, chiar primul din lume. La vremea respectiva, era, in ceea ce priveste tehnologia, cel mai performant din Europa. Si chiar daca e vorba de IML, sa nu ne gandim doar la morti si autopsii ci si la anatomie patologica, antropologie judiciara si stiinta - toxicologie, biologie, genetica. La capitolul organizare, nota 10: reteaua medicinei legale din Romania a reprezentat, in timpul fratilor Minovici, un model pentru o lume intreaga. Daca va ganditi cumva la o vizita pentru a-i admira coloanele si basoreliefurile, sa nu-l mai cautati pentru ca a fost osandit si el de Ceausescu si spulberat, in anii 80, de avantul "maretelor infaptuiri".

Dezgropata de sub ruine, istoria sa este deopotriva fascinanta si inedita. Laboratorul Mortii si al Stiintei era asezat in vecinatatea Pietii Unirea, pe locul unde Str. Cauzasi isi dadea mana cu Splaiul Dambovitei. In cladirea principala a carei intrare era strajuita de doua coloane ionice, pe doua niveluri, se afla biroul directorului. Initial aici exista si un spatiu de expunere al cadavrelor neidentificate, boxe frigorifice (demolate in anii 40; in locul lor s-au amenajat un hol, sala de asteptare).

La etaj, situata intr-o pozitie centrala, se afla o sala destinata muzeului in care accesul se facea printr-o scara metalica, in spirala. Toate dulapurile aveau rafturi si usi dintr-o sticla groasa. In muzeu, in afara preparatelor anatomice se aflau sute de arme de foc, de la diverse revolvere la diverse modele de pusti si carabine fabricate industrial si alte corpuri delicte folosite in cazul diferitelor infractiuni. In urma unui acord al prof. Minovici cu Parchetul, dupa pronuntarea sentintei definitive si dupa ce erau prezentate in instanta, corpurile delicte erau trimise la institut pentru imbogatirea muzeului. Colectia a ajuns in scurt timp sa fie la fel de renumita prin originalitate si varietate astfel incat in anii '30 acest muzeu era fruntas in Europa.

In centrul curtii interioare se inalta Capela "Sf. Mina", construita in anul 1904. Vitalii, pereti oranti cu picturi si mobilati cu strane din lemn sculptat, locul unde se oficiau ceremonii rituale religioase a ramas doar in rame.

Dr. Mina Minovici si discipolul sau, prof. dr. Vasiliu, pregatindu-se pentru o necropsie (Colectia Florin Alexandru Stanescu)

Accesul intr-o alta cladire situata in spatele capelei se facea printr-o scara monumentala de marmura cu balustrade elegante. Pe aceasta scara, o pictura alegorica murala reprezinta medicina legala ca un auxiliar al justitiei. Pe partile laterale se afla o pictura in fresca a doctorului amfitrion in timpul efectuarii unei autopsii.

La etaj un vast vestibul era strajuit de usi masive de stejar cu ancadramente si frontoane sculptate. In continuare se intra in amfiteatrul mare, de 300 de locuri in continuarea caruia se afla o incapere mica destinata pastrarii aparatelor de proiectie. In partea opusa se afla o sala mare destinata efectuarii de catre studentii la medicina a unor lucrari practice.

"Greselile unui medic legist sunt intotdeauna ireparabile. Ele pot sa contribuie sau la condamnarea unui inocent, sau la achitarea unui culpabil, lucru ce, din punct de vedere stiintific, e tot atat de grav. Din punctul de vedere social, insa, cine nu stie cat de ingrozitor este a contribui sa condamni un inocent!Din acest punct de vedere trebuie sa recunoastem ca am fost foarte inapoiati pana acum" (Din discursul dr. Mina Minovici, tinut in 1892, la inaugurarea Morgii)

Biblioteca ocupa un spatiu larg in centru cu o masa de lectura. Rafturile bibilotecii din lemn masiv, sculptat pline de carti donate de fratii Minovici erau incadrate, pe partile laterale, de tablouri de familie sub care se aflau vitrine cu diferite decoratii si medalii.

La subsolul cladirii se afla o sala cu patru mese pentru autopsie ce comunica cu sala de laborator.Sala pentru autopsii era eleganta si spatioasa (in anii 50 devenita sala de anatomie patologica) si o incapare la etaj pentru laborator unde s-au facut primele examene microscopice si de produse biologice.

"Copilul naste, legea il protejeaza, ii asigura identitatea; dar ce ar insemna aceasta protectie fara faptele materiale care sa stabileasca suprimarea, substituirea lui, avortul, infanticidul? Medicina legala este chemata sa se pronunte asupra acestor chestiuni. Organizarea familiei fiind intemeiata pe fapte fiziologice, cine alt, afara de stiinta medicala, poate sa aprecieze legitimitatea nasterilor, viabilitatea, fagaduirile de paternitate etc.? Copilul devine om, devine cetatean; el e stapan pe averea si pe persoana sa, el e liber, cu conditia sa nu abuzeze de aceasta libertate contra semenilor sai, precum si contra persoanei sale insasi. Libertatea fizica este ingradita de libertatea morala, si acel care determina cercul acestei libertati este medicul legist; el procura justitiei informatiile necesare pentru ingradirile drepturilor civile, prin consiliu judiciar, prin interdictie" (Din discursul dr. Mina Minovici, tinut in 1892, la inaugurarea Morgii)

In prelungirea acestei cladiri, Nicolae Minovici a construit o noua sala pentru autopsii, spatioasa, dotata cu ferestre mari mobilata cu patru mese, dulapuri cu instrumente. Exista posibilitatea ca acele mese sa fie rotite asa incat pozitia cadavrului fata de sursa de lumina sa se schimbe. In apropiere a fost amenajata si o mare incapere frigorifica cu rafturi pentru conservarea prin frig a cadavrelor.

Initial, un varf al cercetarii, performantele Institutului au scazut de la un an la altul, dupa 1945, cand a ramas corijent la investitii in infrastructura. Cu buldozerul pre stiinta calcand, in 1986, cladirea de pe strada Cauzasi, a fost demolata iar colectia cu exponate - organe, anomalii medicale, arme ale crimei, s-a risipit, provizoriu si aleator la diferite Morgi din tara. Timp de trei ani institutul a functionat in cladirea Spitalului Pantelimon, pana 1989, cand Institutul a gasit un nou adapost, in cladirea din soseaua Vitan-Barzesti.

Surse, resurse, fotografii:

Dr. Florin Alexandru Stanescu - "Istoria IML: Glorie, Decadere si Renastere" ; Prof. dr. Mina Minovici - "O revolutie in folosul invatamantului si al justitiei"

Cele doua lucrari sunt incluse in volumul lui Adrian Majuru: "Familia Minovici - Univers Spiritual"

The IML (1898-1986) - from Splai - the morgue under the foot of history - the famous settlement leading to eternity, of a great Roman scholar, destroyed by some communist times

A few people know that the Medico Legal Institute, founded in 1898 by Mina Minovici - the one who reformed the legal medicine, was the first European institute, according to opinions, even the first in the world. At that time, it was, with regard to technology, the best in Europe. And even if it's IML, let's not just think of deaths and autopsy, but also of pathological anatomy, legal anthropology and science - toxicology, biology, genetics. In the chapter on organization, note 10: The Romanian legal network of law represented, during the Minovici brothers, a model for a whole world. If you think of a visit to admire its columns and bas-reliefs, do not look for it because it was also condemned by Ceausescu and shattered in the '80s by the "great infatuation".

Exploded beneath ruins, its history is both fascinating and unprecedented. The Death and Science Laboratory was located near Unirea Square, where Str. The Causai was giving his hand to Splaiul Dambovitei. In the main building whose entrance was guarded by two ionic columns, on two levels, was the director's office. Initially, there was a space of exposure of unidentified bodies, refrigerated chambers (demolished in the 1940s, a lobby, waiting room).

Upstairs, located in a central position, there was a hall for the museum where the access was made through a metallic spiral staircase. All cabinets had racks and doors in a thick bottle. Inside the museum, besides the anatomical preparations, there were hundreds of firearms, from various revolvers to various models of industrially manufactured rifles and carabiners and other offenses used in various offenses. Following an agreement of Professor Minovici with the Prosecutor's Office, after pronouncing the final sentence and after being presented in court, the criminal bodies were sent to the institute for enriching the museum. The collection soon came to be as famous as its originality and variety so that in the 1930s this museum was leading in Europe.

In the center of the inner courtyard stands the "St. Mina" Chapel, built in 1904. Vitalii, walls painted with paintings and furniture with a sculpted wood side, the place where religious ritual ceremonies were held remained only in the frames.

Dr. Mina Minovici and his disciple, Prof. Vasiliu, preparing for a necropsy (Florin Alexandru Stanescu Collection)

Access to another building located behind the chapel was through a monumental marble ladder with elegant balustrades. On this scale, a mural allegorical painting represents legal medicine as an auxiliary of justice. On the sides there is a fresco painting of the doctor's amphitrion during an autopsy.

Upstairs a large vestibule was guarded by massive oak doors with sculpted frames and frames. Then he entered the large 300-seat amphitheater, which was followed by a small room for the preservation of the projectors. On the opposite side there is a large hall designed for students to perform practical works.

"The mistakes of a forensic physician are always irreparable, and they can contribute either to condemning an innocent, or to paying a guilty person, which is scientifically so serious, but from a social point of view, who is not he knows how horrible it is to contribute to condemn an ​​innocent! From this point of view, we have to admit that we have been very back to now "(From Mina Minovici's speech, held in 1892 at the inauguration of the Dead

The library occupies a large area in the center with a reading table. The shelves of the massive wooden library, carved with books donated by the Minovici brothers, were framed on the sides by family paintings under which there were showcases with various decorations and medals.

In the basement of the building there was a four-seat hall for autopsy communicating with the laboratory room. The autopsy room was elegant and spacious (in the 50's became anatomical pathology room) and an upstairs laboratory room where the first exams microscopic and biological products.

"The child is born, the law protects it, assures its identity, but what does this protection mean without the material deeds that establish its suppression, substitution, abortion, infanticide?" The legal medicine is called upon to rule on these matters. physiological, who else, apart from medical science, can appreciate birthright legitimacy, viability, paternity paternity, etc. The child becomes a human being, becomes a citizen, he is the owner of his wealth and his person, he is free, provided he does not abuse of this freedom against his fellow human beings, as well as against his own person.The physical liberty is constrained by moral freedom, and the one that determines the circle of this liberty is the forensic physician, he procures to justice the information necessary for the civil rights, through a judicial council, (From Mina Minovici's speech, held in 1892 at the inauguration of the Morgi)

In the prolongation of this building, Nicolae Minovici built a new spacious autopsy room, equipped with large windows furnished with four tables, instrument cabinets. There is a possibility that the tables are rotated so that the position of the corpse towards the light source changes. Nearby there was also a large refrigerator room with shelves for the cold storage of the corpses.

Initially, a peak of research, the Institute's performance declined from one year to the next, after 1945, when it remained coriander in infrastructure investments. With the pre-science bulldozer, in 1986, the Cauzasi Street building was demolished, and the collections of exhibits - organs, medical abnormalities, murder weapons, scattered, provisionally and randomly to various Morgi in the country. For three years, the institute functioned in the Pantelimon Hospital building until 1989, when the Institute found a new shelter in the Vitan-Barzesti road building.

Sources, resources, photos:

Dr. Florin Alexandru Stanescu - "History of IML: Glory, Decadence and Renaissance"; Prof. Dr. Mina Minovici - "A Revolution for the Benefit of Education and Justice"

The two works are included in the volume of Adrian Majuru: "Minovici Family - Spiritual Universe"

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