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Niccolò Piccinni

Niccolò Piccinni (Italian: [nikkoˈlɔ ppitˈtʃinni]; 16 January [O.S. 5 January] 1728 - 7 May 1800) was an Italian composer of symphonies, sacred music, chamber music, and opera. Although he is somewhat obscure today, Piccinni was one of the most popular composers of opera—particularly the Neapolitan opera buffa—of his day.

Life

Piccinni was born in Bari, in the Apulia region, and educated under Leonardo Leo and Francesco Durante, at the S. Onofrio Conservatory. For this, he had to thank the intervention of the Bishop of Bari, since his father, although himself a musician, was opposed to his son's following the same career. Piccinni's first opera, Le donne dispettose, was produced in 1755, and in 1760 he composed, at Rome, the chef d'œuvre of his early life, La Cecchina, ossia la buona Figliuola, an opera buffa with a libretto by Goldoni, which "enjoyed a two-year run in Rome and was played in all the important European capitals. It can probably be called the most popular opera buffa of the 18th century...[even more than]... Pergolesi's La serva padrona...[and]... The first of the new era, culminating in the masterworks of Mozart."[1]

La buona figliuola represents a special moment in the history of eighteenth-century music in which comedy began to take on a new dramatic force. It is the moment at which the self-consciously sentimental theatrical project of Carlo Goldoni (the opera's librettist) is married with the developing musical language of classicism. This can especially be seen in the sensitive writing of Cecchina's Act II aria "Una povera ragazza."[2]

The opera was such a success that fashions of dress, shops, and houses were all named after La Cecchina.[3] It also set off a debate about the merits of the new sentimental style, especially in England, where conservative reactionaries were wary of the supposed feminizing influence of modern Italian music. Antonio Baretti commented in 1768 that individuals “of weight and consideration” should not be blamed for condemning “those puny gentlemen” who, as enthusiasts of Italian opera, were able to “feel its minuet niceties, and to be of course in rapture with the languishing Cecchina’s of Piccini [sic].” This modern music, Baretti decried, “far from having any power of increasing courage or any manly virtues, has on the contrary a tendency towards effeminacy and cowardliness.”[4]

Six years after this Piccinni was invited by Queen Marie Antoinette to Paris. He became the first Italian after Jean-Baptiste Lully to write operas for the Academie Royale de Musique, as the opera was called. He collaborated with the poet and dramatist Marmontel on several projects designed to advance the cause of the operatic reform. Marmontel's first librettos took as their foundation texts Philippe Quinault had written for Lully, Roland 1778, and Atys, 1779, then the subsequent efforts, starting with Didon, were original texts. All his later works were successful; but the directors of the Grand Opera conceived the idea of deliberately opposing him to Gluck, by persuading the two composers to treat the same subject - Iphigénie en Tauride - simultaneously. The Parisian public was divided into two rival parties, which, under the names of Gluckists and Piccinnists, carried on an unworthy and disgraceful war. Gluck's masterly Iphigénie en Tauride was first produced on 18 May 1779. Piccinni's Iphigénie followed on 23 January 1781. The antagonism of the rival parties continued, even after Gluck left Paris in 1780; and an attempt was afterwards made to inaugurate a new rivalry with Sacchini. Piccinni remained popular, and on the death of Gluck, in 1787, proposed that a public monument be erected to his memory—a suggestion which the Gluckists refused to support.

In 1784 Piccinni became professor at the Royal School of Music, one of the institutions from which the Conservatoire was formed in 1794. On the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Piccinni returned to Naples, where he was at first well received by King Ferdinand IV; but the marriage of his daughter to a French democrat brought him disgrace - he was accused of being a revolutionary and placed under house arrest for four years. For the next nine years he maintained a precarious existence in Venice, Naples and Rome; but he returned in 1798 to Paris, where the public received him with enthusiasm, but he made no money. He died at Passy, near Paris. During his life, he worked with the greatest librettists of his age, including Metastasio. After his death a memorial tablet was set up in the house in which he was born at Bari.

He had married in 1756 his pupil Vincenza Sibilla, a singer, whom he never allowed to appear on the stage after their marriage. A grandson, Louis Alexandre Piccinni, became a successful repetiteur and composer in Paris.

The most complete list of his works was given in the Rivista musicale italiana, viii. 75. He produced over eighty operas, but although his later work shows the influence of the French and German stage, he belongs to the conventional Italian school of the 18th century

List[edit]

Title Genre Sub­divisions Libretto Première date Place, theatre
Le donne dispettose
(or: Le trame per amore; La massara spiritosa)
opera buffa Antonio Palomba autumn 1754 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Il curioso del suo proprio danno opera buffa 3 acts Antonio Palomba, after El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra Carnival 1755/1756? Naples, Teatro Nuovo
Le gelosie
(or: Le gelosie, o Le nozze in confusione)
opera buffa Giovanni Battista Lorenzi spring 1755 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Zenobia opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 18 December 1756 Naples, Teatro San Carlo;
revised version: 1768, Naples
L'amante ridicolo
(or: L'amante ridicolo e deluso; L'amante deluso)
intermezzo 2 acts Alessandro Pioli 1757 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
La schiava seria
(or: Die Sklavin)
intermezzo 1757 Naples
Caio Mario opera seria Gaetano Roccaforte 1757? Naples, Teatro San Carlo;
revised version: 20 January 1765, Naples, Teatro San Carlo
Nitteti
(in collaboration with Gioacchino Cocchi)
opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 4 November 1757 Naples, Teatro San Carlo
Alessandro nell'Indie opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 21 January 1758 Rome, Teatro Argentina;
2nd version: 12 January 1774, Naples, Teatro San Carlo
Gli uccellatori opera buffa after Carlo Goldoni 1758 Naples or Venice
Madama Arrighetta
(or: Petiton; Monsieur Petiton)
opera buffa 3 acts Antonio Palomba, after Monsieur Petiton by Carlo Goldoni autumn or winter 1758 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
La scaltra letterata
(or: La scaltra spiritosa)
opera buffa 3 acts Antonio Palomba winter 1758 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
Siroe rè di Persia opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 1759 Naples
Ciro riconosciuto opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 4 November 1759 Naples, Teatro San Carlo
La buona figliuola
(or La Cecchina)
dramma giocoso 3 acts Carlo Goldoni after Samuel Richardson 6 February 1760 Rome, Teatro delle Dame
L'Origille opera buffa Antonio Palomba spring 1760 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Il rè pastore opera seria 3 acts Metastasio autumn 1760 Florence, Teatro della Pergola
La furba burlata
(or: I furbi burlati)
(written with Nicola Logroscino (1698–1765): summer 1762, Naples, Teatro Nuovo;
with additions by Giacomo Insanguine (1728–1795) as I furbi burlati: 1773, Naples )
opera buffa 3 acts P. di Napoli?, after Antonio Palomba autumn 1760 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Le beffe giovevoli opera buffa after Carlo Goldoni winter 1760 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Le vicende della sorte
(or: Le vicende del caso ossia della sorte; Der Glückswechsel)
intermezzo 3 acts Giuseppe Petrosellini, after I Portentosi effetti della madre natura by Carlo Goldoni 3 January 1761 Rome, Teatro Valle
La schiavitù per amore intermezzo Carnival 1761 Rome
Olimpiade opera seria Metastasio Carnival 1761 Rome, Teatro delle Dame;
2nd version: 1768, Rome, Teatro Argentina;
revised 2nd version: 30 May 1774, Naples, Teatro San Carlo
Tigrane
(or: Farnaspe)
opera seria 3 acts Vittorio Amedeo Cigna-Santi, after Carlo Goldoni's revision of the drama by Francesco Silvani Carnival 1761 Turin, Teatro Regio
Demofoonte opera seria 3 acts Metastasio (Demofonte) May 1761 Reggio Emilia, Teatro Moderno
La buona figliuola maritata
(or: La baronessa riconosciuta e maritata;
Cecchina maritata)
opera buffa 3 acts Carlo Goldoni May 1761 Bologna, Teatro Formagliari
Il curioso imprudente
(revised version of Il curioso del suo proprio danno
with Antonio Sacchini)
3 acts Antonio Palomba, after El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra autumn 1761 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Lo stravagante opera buffa 3 acts Antonio Villani autumn 1761 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
L'astuto balordo opera buffa Giovanni Battista Fagiuoli winter 1761 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
L'astrologa opera buffa 3 acts Pietro Chiari Carnival 1761/1762 Venice, Teatro Moisè
Amor senza malizia opera buffa 1762 Nuremberg, Hoftheater Thurn und Taxis
Artaserse opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 3 February 1762 Rome, Teatro Argentina;
revised version: 4 November 1768 or 1772, Naples, Teatro San Carlo
Le avventure di Ridolfo intermezzo Lazzaro Mazzei Carnival 1762 Bologna, Teatro Marsigli-Rossi
La bella verità opera buffa 3 acts Carlo Goldoni 12 June 1762 Bologna, Teatro Marsigli-Rossi
Antigono opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 4 November 1762 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
Il cavaliere per amore
(or: Il fumo villano)
(in collaboration with Bernardo Ottani)
opera buffa 2 acts Giuseppe Petrosellini winter 1762 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
(or: Carnival 1763, Rome, Teatro Valle)
Le donne vendicate
(or: Il vago disprezzato;
Le fat méprisé)
intermezzo 2 acts after Carlo Goldoni Carnival 1763 Rome, Teatro Valle
Le contadine bizzarre
(or: La sciocchezza in amore;
Le contadine astute;
Le villanelle astute)
opera buffa 3 acts Giuseppe Petrosellini February 1763 Rome, Teatro Capranica
(or: autumn 1763, Venice, Teatro San Samuele
Gli stravaganti, ossia La schiava riconosciuta
(or: La schiava;
Gli stravaganti, ossia I matrimoni alla moda;
L'esclave ou Le marin généreux;
Die Ausschweifenden) (with additions by Joseph Haydn)
intermezzo 2 acts 1 January 1764 Rome, Teatro Valle
La villeggiatura
(revised version of Le donne vendicate)
opera buffa 3 acts after Carlo Goldoni Carnival 1764 Bologna, Teatro Formagliari
Il parrucchiere intermezzo Carnival 1764 Rome, Teatro Valle
L'incognita perseguitata
(with additions by Joseph Haydn)
opera buffa 3 acts Giuseppe Petrosellini Carnival 1764 Venice, Teatro San Samuele
L'equivoco opera buffa 3 acts Liviano Lantino and Antonio Villani summer 1764 Naples, Teatro Fiorentini
La donna vana opera buffa 3 acts Antonio Palomba November 1764 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Il nuovo Orlando opera buffa after Ludovico Ariosto 26 December 1764 Modena, Teatro Rangoni
Il barone di Torreforte intermezzo 2 acts 10 January 1765 Rome, Teatro Capranica
Il finto astrologo intermezzo after Carlo Goldini 7 February 1765 Rome, Teatro Valle
L'orfana insidiata
(with additions by Gennaro Astarita (1745–1803))
opera buffa summer 1765 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
La Pescatrici ovvero L'Erede riconosciuta
(or: La pescatrice innocente)
intermezzo 2 acts after Carlo Goldoni 9 January 1766 Rome, Teatro Capranica
La baronessa di Montecupo intermezzo 27 January 1766 Rome, Teatro Capranica
L'incostante
(or: Il volubile; La capricciosa)
intermezzo 2 acts Antonio Palomba February 1766 Rome, Teatro Capranica
La fiammetta generosa
(with Pasquale Anfossi (1727–1797))
opera buffa 3 acts Carnival 1766 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
La molinarella
(or: Il cavaliere Ergasto; La molinara)
opera buffa 3 acts autumn 1766 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
Il gran Cid
(or: Il Cid)
opera seria 3 acts Giovacchino Pizzi after Pierre Corneille 4 November 1766 Naples, Teatro San Carlo
La francese maligna 1766/1767 Naples or 1769, Rome
La notte critica opera buffa 3 acts Carlo Goldoni Carnival 1767 Lisbon, Teatro Salvaterra
La finta baronessa opera buffa Filippo Livigni summer 1767 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Mazzina, Acetone e Dindimento opera buffa c. 1767? Naples?
La direttrice prudente
(or: La prudente ingegnosa)
opera buffa 3 acts autumn 1767
Gli napoletani in America opera buffa 3 acts Francesco Cerlone 10 June 1768 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
La locandiera di spirito opera buffa 3 acts autumn 1768 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
Lo sposo burlato intermezzo 2 acts Giovanni Battista Casti 5 January 1769 Rome, Teatro Valle
L'innocenza riconosciuta opera buffa 11 January 1769 Senigallia
La finta ciarlatana ossia Il vecchio credulo opera buffa Carnival 1769 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
Demetrio opera seria Metastasio 30 May 1769 Naples, Teatro San Carlo
Gli sposi perseguitati opera buffa Pasquale Mililotti 1769 Naples, Teatro Nuovo
Didone abbandonata opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 8 January 1770 Rome, Teatro Argentina
Cesare in Egitto
(or: Cesare e Cleopatra)
opera seria 3 acts Giacomo Francesco Bussani January 1770 Milan, Teatro Ducale
La donna di spirito opera buffa 13 February 1770 Rome, Teatro Capranica
Il regno della luna
(or: Il mondo della luna)
opera buffa spring 1770 Milan, Teatro ducale
Gelosia per gelosia opera buffa Giovanni Battista Lorenzi summer 1770, Naples Teatro dei Fiorentini
Don Chisciotte opera buffa Giovanni Battista Lorenzi, after Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 1770 Naples?
Il finto pazzo per amore opera buffa 1770 Naples?
Catone in Utica 3 acts Metastasio 5 November 1770 Mannheim, Hoftheater
L'olandese in Italia opera buffa Niccolò Tassi autumn 1770 Milan, Teatro Ducale
Antigono opera seria Carnival 1771 Rome
La donna di bell'umore opera buffa 15 May 1771 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
La Corsara opera buffa 3 acts Giovanni Battista Lorenzi autumn 1771 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Le finte gemelle
(or: Le due finte gemelle;
Le germane in equivoco)
intermezzo 2 or 3 acts Giuseppe Petrosellini 2 January 1771 Rome, Teatro Valle
L'americano
(or: L'americano incivilito;
L'americano ingentilito)
intermezzo 2 acts 22 February 1772 Rome, Teatro Caprnica
L'astratto, ovvero Il giocator fortunato
(or: Il giocator fanatico per il lotto)
(with additions by Joseph Haydn)
opera buffa 3 acts Giuseppe Petrosellini Carnival 1772 Venice, Teatro San Samuele
Le trame zingaresche opera buffa Giovanni Battista Lorenzi summer 1772 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Ipermestra opera seria 3 acts Metastasio 4 November 1772 Naples, Teatro San Carlo
Scipione in Cartagena opera seria 3 acts Luigi Giusti
(or: Alvise Giusti?)
26 December 1772? Modena, Teatro di Corte
La sposa collerica intermezzo 9 January 1773 Rome, Teatro Valle
Le quattro nazioni o La vedova scaltra opera buffa after Carlo Goldoni's comedy 1773 Rome?
Il vagabondo fortunato opera buffa Pasquale Mililotti autumn 1773 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Gli amanti mascherati opera buffa 1774 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Il conclave del MDCCLXXIV after Metastasio Carnival 1775 Rome, Teatro delle Dame
L'ignorante astuto opera buffa 3 acts Pasquale Mililotti Carnival 1775 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Enea in Cuma parody Pasquale Mililotti spring 1775 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Il sordo intermezzo 1775 Naples
I viaggiatori opera buffa Pasquale Mililotti?, after Carlo Goldoni autumn 1775 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
La contessina opera buffa 3 acts Marco Coltellini, after Carlo Goldoni autumn 1775 Verona, Teatro Filarmonico
Radamisto opera seria 3 acts Antonio Marchi 1776 Naples
Vittorina opera buffa Carlo Goldoni 16 December 1777 London, King's Theatre
Roland tragédie lyrique 3 acts Jean-François Marmontel, after Philippe Quinault and Ludovico Ariosto 27 January 1778 Paris, Académie Royale
Phaon drame lyrique 2 acts Claude-Henri Watelet September 1778 Choisy-le-Roi, Hoftheater
Il vago disprezzato
(or: Le fat méprisé)
opera buffa after Carlo Goldoni 16 May 1779 Paris, Académie Royale
Atys tragédie lyrique 3 acts Jean-François Marmontel, after Philippe Quinault 22 February 1780 Paris, Académie Royale
Iphigénie en Tauride tragédie lyrique 4 acts Alphonse du Congé Dubreuil, after Claude Guimond de La Touche 23 January 1781 Paris, Académie Royale
Adèle de Ponthieu tragédie lyrique 3 acts Jean-Paul-André des Rasins de Saint-Marc 27 October 1781 Paris, Académie Royale
Didon tragédie lyrique 3 acts Jean-François Marmontel, after Metastasio and Nahum Tate 16 October 1783 Fontainebleau
Le dormeur éveillé opéra comique 2 acts Jean-François Marmontel 14 November 1783 Paris, Comédie Italienne
Le faux Lord opéra comique 2 acts Giuseppe Maria Piccinni 6 December 1783 Versailles
Diane et Endymion opera seria 3 acts Jean-François Espic Chevalier de Liroux 7 September 1784 Paris, Académie Royale
Lucette opéra comique Giuseppe Maria Piccinni 30 December 1784 Paris, Comédie Italienne
Pénélope tragédie lyrique 3 acts Jean-François Marmontel 2 November 1785 Fontainebleau, Hoftheater;
2nd version: 16 October 1787, Paris, Académie Royale
Adèle de Ponthieu
(2nd version)
tragédie lyrique 3 acts revised 1785 but unperformed
Clytemnestre tragédie lyrique Louis-Guillaume Pitra composed 1787, but unperformed
La serva onorata opera buffa Giovanni Battista Lorenzi, after Le nozze di Figaro by Lorenzo Da Ponte Carnival? 1792 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Le trame in maschera opera buffa Carnival 1793 Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini
Ercole al Termodonte
(or: La disfatta delle Amazzone)
opera seria 2 acts Antonio Simone Sografi 12 January 1793 Naples, Teatro San Carlo
La Griselda eroicomico 2 acts Angelo Anelli, after Giovanni Boccaccio 8 October 1793 Venice, Teatro San Samuele
Il servo padrone, ossia L'amor perfetto opera buffa 2 acts Caterino Mazzolà 17 January 1794 Venice, Teatro San Samuel

Niccolò Piccinni (16 January 1728 – 7 May 1800) was an Italian composer of symphonies, sacred music, chamber music, and opera. Work: Roland, tragédie lyrique in three acts, first performance 27 January 1778, Académie royale, Paris. An islander: Daniele Gaspari Angélique: Alla Simoni Astolfe: Kim Hyung-Dong Bélise: Eléna Lopéz Coridon: Daniele Gaspari Lopistille: Lei Ma Médor: Stefania Donzelli Roland: Luca Grassi Tersandre: Giacomo Rocchetti Thémire: Sara Allegretta Chorus: Chamber Chorus Bratislava Orchestra: Orchestra Internazionale d'Italia Conductor: David Golub

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